威森——油脂精炼工艺的开拓者

2021-06-09
威森精炼损失 wesson refining loss :毛油中所含全部杂质占毛袖的质量分数,这是一个油脂加工技术人员都知道一个名词述语。Wesson是美国的一位杰出的油脂化学家,油脂精炼工艺的开拓者,美国油脂化学家协会创始人之一。1899年,威森发明了一种脱除棉籽油气味的方法,生产出了*代棉籽油为原料的起稣油。作为棉花工业的副产品,棉籽油价格低廉,由于威森的发明,棉油成为20世纪初美国*受欢迎的食用油。

All the oil processing technicians know a noun out there, wesson refining loss: the mass fraction of all impurities contained in the crude oil in the wool sleeve. Wesson is an outstanding oleochemist in the United States, a pioneer in oil refining technology, and one of the founders of the American Oleochemist Association. In 1899, Wesson invented a method to remove the smell of cottonseed oil and produced the first generation of cottonseed oil as raw material. As a by-product of the cotton industry, cottonseed oil is cheap, and Wisson’s invention made cotton oil the most popular edible oil in the United States in the early 20th century.

Wesson出生于1861年1月14日,他在纽约布鲁克林的公立学校接受了早期教育,毕业于麻省理工学院(MIT),获得理学学士学位,并在那里担任化学教授的助理。

Wesson was born on January 14, 1861. He received his early education in a public school in Brooklyn, New York. He graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) with a bachelor of science degree, where he served as an assistant to a professor of chemistry.

此后不久,Wesson开始对油脂感兴趣,当时他担任了伊利诺斯州芝加哥N.K. Fairbanks公司的首席化学家。1890年,W.J. Wilcox收购了N.K. Fairbanks公司,Wesson被调到新泽西州的Gutenberg,担任首席化学家。Fairbanks公司是美国Wilcox油脂公司的一个分分司,从1890年到1895年雇佣了Wesson。到1893年,Wesson为公司已经开发了两种起稣油产品,以哥伦布和玻利瓦尔(Columbus 和 Bolivar)的名字命名。

Soon thereafter, Wesson became interested in fats and soaps when he was the chief chemist of N.K. Fairbanks in Chicago, Illinois, a manufacturer of animal-based oils. Generally speaking, these products include 8 parts oleostearin, 38 parts cottonseed oil and 60 parts lard. They were so successful in the market that Fairbanks gave up making pure lard. In 1890, W.J. Wilcox acquired N.K. Fairbanks, and Wesson was transferred to Gutenberg, New Jersey, as the chief chemist. Fairbanks is a branch of the Wilcox Grease Company in the United States, which hired Wesson from 1890 to 1895. However, it seems that some products were sold under the name Fairbanks until 1919. By 1893, Wesson had developed two oil products for the company, named after Columbus and Bolivar.

后来他建立了自己的实验室,1900年开始生产可食用棉籽油的时候,Wesson以Wesson加工公司名义经营,他也成为南方棉籽油公司技术部门的经理。到了1900年冬天,开始生产“Wesson 油”。这一过程的一个关键部分是除臭技术。1845年首次报道了油脂的脱臭,当时用高压蒸汽处理加热到110度的棕榈油。到1891年,Ekstein,Fairbanks公司一个员工,成功脱臭棉籽油,在340°F通入高压蒸汽,在封闭的油罐顶部排出蒸汽和气味。

Later, Wesson opened a bicycle factory and established its own laboratory. When edible cottonseed oil was produced in 1900, Wesson started a new business. Operating under the name of Wesson Processing Company, Wesson also became the manager of the technical department of Southern Cottonseed Oil Company. In the winter of 1900, the production of "Wesson Oil" began at the Savannah plant in Georgia. A key part of this process is the development of appropriate deodorization technology. Although the method of treating cottonseed oil with Fuller's clay eliminates the color problem, there are still difficulties in removing odor/taste, which severely restricts the use of cottonseed oil. Deodorization of fats and oils was first reported in 1845, when palm oil heated to 110 degrees was treated with high-pressure steam. By 1891, Ekstein, an employee of Fairbanks, had successfully deodorized cottonseed oil, passed high-pressure steam at 340°F, and discharged steam and odors on the top of a closed oil tank.

在Ekstein离开Fairbanks之后,James Boyce做了更多的改进。Wesson通过在真空中进行操作,*终改善了除臭的效果。避免过熟的风味,并产生了优良的风味和氧化稳定性。

After Ekstein left Fairbanks, James Boyce made more improvements. However, Wesson eventually improved its deodorization by operating in a vacuum. Overripe flavor is avoided and excellent flavor and oxidation stability are obtained.

Wesson似乎是*个油脂化学家(1887)组织一个质量控制实验室对棉籽产品进行系统检查,他是*个为棉籽厂经营者建立物理审计方法的人。Wesson是一位多产的作家,他撰写了大量的文章,包括工业和工程化学,美国化学工程师学会的学报,以及化学工业协会的期刊,以及各种油脂工业的行业杂志。他对该行业的许多贡献包括一种确定中性油得率的方法,即Wesson精炼损失测试;测定油色泽的方法;以及介绍除臭、加氢、脱色和溶剂浸出食用油的出版物。Wesson担任《油脂和肥皂》(Oil and Soap)杂志的副主编。他是美国化学工程师学会的会员,在1919- 1920年担任这个协会的主席。

Wesson appears to have been the first grease chemist (1887) to organize a quality control laboratory for systematic inspection of cottonseed products, and he was the first to establish a physical audit method for cottonseed plant operators. Wesson is a prolific author of numerous articles including industrial and engineering chemistry, the journal of the American Society of Chemical Engineers, and the journals of the Chemical Industry Association, as well as trade journals of the various oil and grease industries. Many of his contributions to the industry include a method for determining neutral oil yield, known as the Wesson refining loss test; Method for determining oil colour and lustre; And publications on deodorization, hydrogenation, decolorization, and solvent leaching of edible oils. Wesson is associate editor of Oil and Soap magazine. He was a member of the American Society of Chemical Engineers and served as its president from 1919 to 1920.

Wesson是植物油行业的有力捍卫者,由于当时通过的立法,与黄油/乳制品行业相比植物油处于劣势。1886年通过的一项联邦法律要求所有的猪油和其他脂肪混合物标记为“化合物”,而不是“精制猪油”,以防止掺假。1931年,在一个众议院关于人造黄油的立法会议上,Wesson回忆说,在1886年法案下,他分析的一种人造黄油的样本,是一种不适合人类食用的变质黄油。Wesson还指出,在通过了人造黄油法之后,发现超出屠宰的猪所得到的量的猪油被运出芝加哥。调查显示,棉籽油和硬脂酸被添加到纯猪油中,并作为精炼猪油出售。黄油行业多年来一直受到法律的保护,禁止在人造黄油中使用色素。Wesson向众议院委员会指出,黄油的颜色受饮食和季节的影响。在冬天,奶牛用谷物、干草和稻草喂养产生白色的黄油,而在初夏,那些靠绿色牧场喂养的奶牛会生产出金黄色的黄油。他认为,为了让消费者不被欺骗,所有含有人工色素的食品都应该被同等地征税。

Wesson was a strong defender of the vegetable oil industry, which was at a disadvantage to the butter/dairy industry because of legislation passed at the time. A federal law passed in 1886 required all lard and other fat mixtures to be labeled "compounds" rather than "refined lard" to prevent adulteration. In 1931, during a House of Representatives legislative session on margarine, Wesson recalled that a sample of margarine he analyzed under the 1886 Act was a bad butter unfit for human consumption. The average person thinks these types of products are typical margarine, organic products. Made from oleic acid, neutral lard and refined cottonseed oil, it's sweet, and food experts agree that it's a healthy food and a valuable diet, especially for those who can't afford butter. Wesson also noted that after the margarine method was passed, it was found that more lard than the slaughtered pigs got was shipped out of Chicago. The investigation showed that cottonseed oil and stearic acid were added to pure lard and sold as refined lard. The butter industry has been protected by law against the use of pigments in margarine for years. Wesson pointed out to the House committee that butter color is influenced by diet and season. In winter, cows fed grain, hay, and straw produce white butter, while in early summer, those raised on green pastures produce golden butter. He argues that all foods containing artificial colors should be taxed equally in order to keep consumers from being cheated.

参与美国油脂化学家协会(AOCS)的组建

在大卫·威森自己的话语中,对AOCS的成立情况进行了描述:

“在早期的棉籽业务,当棉籽压榨厂举行了一年一度会议的惯例,在这些会议中可以发现许多化学家的感兴趣的工作是严格注意规则委员会的审议,这是一个非常八卦的团体,商界领导人组成的本应是颁布棉籽加工的产品的规则。参加这些会议的化学家的主要职责是向他们的雇主提供各种测试对交易的影响。有一次午餐时,几家*的公司的化学家自由地讨论了某些方法,并得知他们都在使用完全相同的程序,并且了解了相同的事实。1909年5月18日至20日,在孟菲斯举行的国际棉籽压榨者协会会议上,一小群代表不同工厂和商业实验室的化学家举行了非正式会议。大家一致同意,棉花油化学家的组织将促进相互感情,允许在统一分析方法的发展方面进行更密切的合作,并为棉籽油工业的利益提供一种研究工作的手段。临时组织的结果是任命了一个委员会来起草法规和章程。在1910年的小石城会议上,协会以“棉籽产品分析师”的名义组织起来。

Participated in the formation of the American Association of Oleochemists (AOCS)

In David Wesson’s own words, he described the establishment of AOCS:

"In the early cottonseed business, when the cottonseed crushing plant held annual meetings, it was found that many chemists were interested in strictly paying attention to the deliberations of the Rules Committee. This is a very gossip group. The business leaders are supposed to promulgate the rules for cottonseed processing products. The main responsibility of the chemists participating in these meetings is to provide their employers with various tests on the impact of transactions. There is no doubt that the chemists participating in these meetings Be vigilant to new and improved methods, and use their advantages for the benefit of their company. These are relatively crude test methods, and most chemists’ efforts are in the evaluation of oil production and refining methods. This It was before the day of real cooperation. I saw several chemists chatting together. Everyone wanted to say as little as possible, what to learn from their peers. This is a common sight. Their working methods have ridiculous secrets. When it is believed that all people have access to the same literature and trade practices. The author remembers that during lunch, chemists from several leading companies freely discussed certain methods and learned that they were all using exactly the same Procedures, and learned the same facts. From May 18 to 20, 1909, at the International Cottonseed Squeezers Association meeting in Memphis, a small group of chemists representing different factories and commercial laboratories held an informal meeting. It was agreed that the organization of cotton oil chemists would promote mutual affection, allow closer cooperation in the development of unified analytical methods, and provide a means of research work for the benefit of the cottonseed oil industry. The result of the provisional organization is appointment A committee was formed to draft regulations and articles of association. At the Little Rock meeting in 1910, the association was organized under the name of "Cottonseed Product Analyst". The name was chosen because few of us have received real chemistry education , And only received the training of laboratory assistants, mainly to do routine tests.

美国油脂化学家协会前12任主席,摄于1921年。

前排左二:David Wesson

The 12 former presidents of the American Association of Oleochemists, taken in 1921.

Front row second from left: David Wesson


Wesson于1934年5月22日去世,他的讣告出现在6月的《油脂与肥皂》杂志上。讣告说:“作为一个男人,Wesson博士非常民主,而且有很强的幽默感。”他总是乐于帮助行业中的年轻人解决各种问题。威森博士受到了所有认识他的人的爱戴,他的朋友、我们的社会和整个行业都遭受了巨大的损失。

Wesson is an avid sailor, he owns a sailboat, and he sails in Banat Bay. He died on May 22, 1934. The industry mourned his death, and his obituary appeared in the June issue of Grease and Soap. The obituary said: "As a man, Dr. Wesson is very democratic and has a strong sense of humor." He is always happy to help young people in the industry solve various problems. Dr. Wesson is loved by everyone who knows him. His friends, our society and the industry have suffered huge losses.


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